Disease Transmitted From Animals To Humans
Cats are highly susceptible to rabies, which attacks the central nervous system, causing a variety of signs. In people, rabies infections usually occur when an infected animal bites a person. In order to protect human health, rabies vaccination of cats is required by law in many areas. Even if your cat is kept indoors, it is important to keep rabies vaccines current because cats occasionally escape outdoors, and because rabid animals such as bats and raccoons occasionally enter houses. To further reduce your risk of rabies, avoid contact with wildlife and stray animals and see a doctor immediately if you have been bitten by an animal. All classes of disease agents cause zoonotic disease, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi.
Recent studies in Nature, including one on March 17 and another on March 26, indicate the new coronavirus genetically resembles other coronaviruses that had originated in bats. Scientists are also studying whether the illness spread to other animals before it sickened humans. Cannon said that’s because part of the coronavirus’ genetic code looks similar to viruses found in bats. Scientists believe the new coronavirus was transmitted from animals to people at a marketplace in Wuhan, China. Yes, but the good news is that direct horse to human disease transmission is rare. Here’s a quick refresher on some bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral diseases that can potentially be transmitted to us directly from the equines in our lives.
Symptoms can include headaches, seizures, confusion, brain swelling, difficulty balancing and even stroke and death, according to the CDC. About 1,000 cases are reported in the U.S. each year, according to the National Organization for Rare Disorders. Unlike some flu strains that mainly kill the elderly and those with compromised immune systems, the 1918 strain hit young adults hardest, as the older population seemed to have some immunity built up from a past H1N1 virus. In one year, the average life expectancy in the United States dropped by 12 years.
Fleas may also serve as vectors for CSD and other zoonotic diseases. Flea-infested cats may become infected with tapeworms from fleas ingested while grooming. While not common, people can also become infected with tapeworms by inadvertently ingesting fleas. Ebola virus disease, which is caused by one of five strains of the Ebola virus, is a widespread threat to gorillas and chimps in Central Africa. The disease may have spread to humans from infected bats or infected non-human primates, the CDC says.
Given the close proximity to humans and the role of companion animals as a source of zoonoses, the absence of these species from international agendas for One Health represents a gap that requires urgent attention. The Emerging Infections Program (/ncezid/dpei/eip/) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention coordinates population-based laboratory surveillance programs, some of which are relevant to transmission of zoonoses from companion animals. These programs include the Active Bacterial Core surveillance for invasive bacterial disease and the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network for foodborne diseases caused by selected bacterial and parasitic pathogens.
Transmission via these droplets is often called airborne transmission. Airborne transmission of COVID-19 has been shown to occur through aerosols containing residual of droplets, that are able to stay suspended in the air for longer periods. Airborne transmission is able to occur, particularly indoors, such as in restaurants, hospitals, choir practices, fitness classes, nightclubs, offices, and religious venues, often when they are crowded or less ventilated. An example of airborne transmission is believed to be a superspreading event that occurred in a Skagit Valley chorale practice, with an estimated 32 to 52 of the 61 attendees becoming infected.
Scientists have found that almost 60% of all human diseases and about 75% of all emerging infectious diseases are transmitted by animals to human. Most infections come from livestock, such as pigs, cattle, chicken, camel, and sheep. These infections are possible because almost three-quarters of the rural people especially the poor and about one-third of the urban poor are dependent on livestock for income, food, manure and other services. Infected cats most often come from environments housing large numbers of animals.
As demonstrated in this review paper, the trend for reporting pathogen spread of human-to-animal is increasing. However the route of human transmission to animal disease manifestation is often unknown in these reports and not well documented in this review. Also the report did not examine articles that did not document human-to-animal transmission.
Improperly canned foods can create an environment ripe for Clostridium botulinum, which can lead to botulism. Infectious diseases are commonly transmitted through direct person-to-person contact. Transmission occurs when an infected person touches or exchanges body fluids with someone else. This can happen before an infected person is aware of the illness.
The high volume of antibiotics in food-producing animals contributes to the development of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, particularly in settings of intensive animal production. In some countries, the total amount of antibiotics used in animals is 4 times larger than the amount used in humans. In many countries much of the antibiotics used in animals are for growth promotion and prevention of disease, not to treat sick animals. Zoonotic diseases continue to be of significant concern for public health. In the early 21st century, an estimated 60 percent of novel human pathogens were zoonotic in origin, and increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases were spreading into areas where they previously had not occurred. In addition, several zoonotic disease agents were identified as candidates for use in bioterrorism attacks.
The disruption of pristine forests driven by logging, mining, road building through remote places, rapid urbanisation and population growth is bringing people into closer contact with animal species they may never have been near before. The resulting transmission of disease from wildlife to humans, she says, is now “a hidden cost of human economic development”. Most of the supporting scientific evidence – the best available – was collected from epidemiological studies, surveillance programmes and observational studies. The infections can be transferred directly from the animals to humans via contact such as animal bites and scratches, consuming contaminated animal products, breathing in pathogens, or through skin contact. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as do certain strains of the flu and tick-borne Lyme disease.
However, we often forget that humans also transmit diseases to animals. In a global survey, whose results were published in 2014, humans were found to be able to transmit 21 bacterial, 12 viral and seven fungal pathogens to animals. Wild animals are the most affected, followed by livestock and pets.